Culture and Psychology

I was trained under the guidance of Harry Triandis and am interested in understanding what makes human groups similar and different in order to broaden psychological and management science and to inform practice and policy. My early work focused on the distinction of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism (see the scale here). Our team has recently begun to systematically investigate the strength of norms across cultures, or what is referred to as cultural tightness-looseness (TL). Teaming up with partners around the world and from different disciplines, we are doing research on the ecological and historical factors that promote TL at both the national and state level, the neurobiological and genetic underpinnings of TL, the evolutionary basis of TL, and the implications of TL for organizations and expatriate and for societal well-being. More recently I have also been doing work on subjective culture (e.g., honor, wasta, fatalism) in the Middle East. We use laboratory, field, computational, and EEG and fRMI to examine our research questions

I also edit the series Advances in Cultural Psychology which summarizes important research programs in the emerging field of Cultural Psychology.

Papers in this area:

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    Li, R., Gordon, S., & Gelfand, M. (2017). Tightness-looseness: A new framework to understand consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology.

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    De, S., Gelfand, M. J., Nau, D., Roos, P. (in press). The Inevitability of Ethnocentrism Revisited: Ethnocentrism Diminishes as Mobility Increases. Scientific Reports.

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    Mu, Y., Kitayama, S., Han. S., Gelfand. M. (in press). How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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    Atkas, M., Hanges, P., Gelfand, M. J. (in press). Cultural Tightness-Looseness and Perceptions of Effective Leadership. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.

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    Harrington, J. H., Boski, P., Gelfand, M. J. (2015). Culture and National Well-Being: Should Societies Emphasize Freedom or Constraint. PLOS ONE.

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    Roos, P., Gelfand, M. J., Nau, D., Lun, J. (2015). Societal threat and cultural variation in the strength of norms. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

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    Realo, A., Linnamägi, K., Gelfand, MG. (2014). The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece. International Journal of Psychology.

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    Roos, P., Gelfand, M. J., Nau, D. (2014). High Strength of Ties and Low Mobility Enable the Evolution of Third Party Punishment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

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    Harrington, J., Gelfand, M. (2014). Tightness–looseness across the 50 united states. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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    Salas, E. Gelfand, M. J. (2013). Introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Lun, J. (2013). Ecological Priming: Convergent evidence for the link between ecology and psychological processes. Brain and Behavioral Sciences.

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    Mrazek, A. J., Chiao, J. Y., Blizinsky, K. D., Lun, L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2013). The role of culture-gene coevolution in morality judgment: Examining the interplay between tightness-looseness and allelic variation of the serotonin transporter gene. Culture and Brain.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Lun, J. (2013). The culture of the situation: The role of situational strength in cultural systems. Asian Journal of Social Psychology.

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    Salas, E., Salazar, M., & Gelfand, M. J. (2013). Understanding culture as diversity. In Q. Roberson (Ed.) Diversity in organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.

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    Gelfand, M. J. (2012). Culture's Constraints: International Differences in the Strength of Social Norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Frese, M., & Salmon, E. (2012). Cultural Influences on Errors: Planning, detection, and management. In M. Frese & D. Hoffman (Eds.) Errors in organizations (A volume in the SIOP Organizational Frontier series). ). London: Psychology Press/Taylor and Francis Group.

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    Gelfand, M. J. (2011). The trials and tribulations of cross-cultural research. In F. Leong & A. Ryan (Eds). Conducting Multinational Research Projects in Organizational Psychology: Challenges and Opportunities.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Lyons, S., Lun, J. (2010). Towards a Psychological Science of Globalization. Journal of Social Issues.

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    Ramesh, A. & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). Will they stay or will they go? The rold of job embeddedness in predicted turnover in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Diener, E. (2010). Culture and Psychological Science: Introduction to the Special Section. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

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    Chiu, C-Y., Gelfand, M. J., Yamagishi, T., Shteynberg, G., & Wan, C. (2010). Intersubjective culture: The role of intersubjective perceptions in cross-cultural research. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

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    Shteyneberg, G., Gelfand, M. J., & Kim, L. (2009). Peering into the "magnum mysterium" of culture. The explanatory power of descriptive norms. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Leslie, L., Fehr, R. (2008). In order to prosper, organizational psychology should adopt a global perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Erez, M., Aycan, Z. (2007). Cross-cultural organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology.

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    Kashima, Y., Kashima, ES., Kim, U., Gelfand, M. J. (2006). Describing the social world- How is a person, a group, and a relationship described in the East and the West? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L., and Raver, J. (2006). On the nature and importance of cultural tightness-looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1225-124.

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    Kashima, Y., Kashima, E., Chui, C. Y., Farsadies, M., Gelfand, M. J., Hong, Y. Y., et al. (2005). Culture, essentialism, and agency. Are individuals universally believed to be more real entities than groups? European Journal of Psychology.

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    Yamaguchi, S., Gelfand, M. J. (2005). The Cultural Psychology of Control: Illusion of personal versus collective control in U.S. and Japan. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J., Lim, B. C. (2004). Culture and accountability: Variations in forms of social control across cultures. Human Resource Management Review.

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    Triandis, H. C, Gelfand, M. J. (1996). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

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    Gelfand, M. J., Triandis, H. C., Chan, D. K. S. (1996). Individualism versus Collectivism or versus Authoritarianism. European Journal of Social Psychology.

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    Chan, D. K. S., Gelfand, M. J., Triandis, H. C., Tzeng, O. (1996). Tightness-Looseness revisited: a systematic examination in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Psychology

Contact

Feel free to contact me with the provided information. I will do my best to reply in a timely manner.

  • 3147C Biology/Psychology Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742
  • 301 405 6972
  • mgelfand@umd.edu
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